financial crisis

  • Sustainable Futures Hackathon 2024 – Hacking Place in Accounting Education

    Sustainable Futures Hackathon 2024 – Hacking Place in Accounting Education

    Nick McGuigan, Charles H. Cho & David Derichs

     

    This year the EAA Education Committee worked collaboratively with the Centre for Social and Environmental Research (CSEAR) to host the 2024 Sustainable Futures Hackathon during the opening of the annual congress, recently held in Bucharest, Romania.

    This year’s co-organisers Nick McGuigan (Monash University, Australia), Charles H. Cho (Schulich School of Business, York University, Canada) and David Derichs (Aalto University, Finland) instigated a very different and somewhat unusual format to the hackathon, challenging participants’ educational worldview by interrogating where accounting education takes place.

    Collaborating with six talented co-facilitators, Joan Ballantine (Ulster University, Northern Ireland), Ericka Costa (University of Trento, Italy), Alessandro Ghio (Laval University, Canada), Blerita Korca (University of Bamberg, Germany), Alessandro Merendino (Queen Mary University of London, England), Erica Pimentel (Queen’s University, Canada), the organisers matched facilitator research interests and expertise with ‘place’ to actively and playfully engage in Hacking Place in Accounting Education.

     

    Participants joined each co-facilitator in small groups to go out and explore six diverse place sites across the city of Bucharest. These included, working with nature in accounting at Grădina Cișmigiu public gardens, working with equity, diversity, and social belonging in accounting at LGBTQIA+ bar Thor’s Hammer, working with technology and immaterial space in accounting with Bonapp digital app, working with art in accounting at Anca Poterasu Gallery, working with community in accounting at Dimitrie Gusti National Village Museum, and working with history in accounting at Bucharest’s historic old town.

    Taking participants away from what they perceived as the ‘normal’ educational context enabled learning to come alive, “It was very stimulating to be in a physical place where ESG issues actually take place. It forces you to think critically about the specific ESG issue”. This is important as “It makes the context real. We were looking at SDGs, and in this place, certain SDGs came to life”. In doing so, accounting education became “more down-to-earth, close to day-to-day”, the proximity of learning for participants changed and they could feel a closeness with accounting that was not perceived as present elsewhere.

    Forty-one accounting academics, spanning 21 countries and spread across 4 continents, joined their co-facilitators in small groups to hack the place in which accounting education and learning take place, designing innovative learning materials that capture place-based education in accounting. This included participants playfully being asked to form first impressions by ‘going on a date’ with their Bucharest site! Taking time out to get to know each other a little better. Walking around the site trying to get a feel for each other.

    I was surprised how much my own prior beliefs impacted how I perceived place differently from my group members”.

    It was then time to get intimate. Now that participants were all on a first name basis with their site, it was time to get physical and map it out. Mapping key reflections and references picked up about the site.

    It widened the context in which I perceive what is accounting – it broadened my perspective”.

    Gaps were subsequently filled from fact gathering, data hunting and storytelling. Participants built further knowledge on their site by uncovering further detail and depth, fleshing out history and stories of place to ensure a depth of context.

    “[It] raised creativity for learning activity design, group discussion very rich and productive

    It was then time to make connections between the uncovered Bucharest site with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and Principles of Responsible Management Education (PRME) i5 pedagogical design principles.

    [It] was a nice experience because made me think out of my comfort zone. The cultural diversity shows me different points of view and ways to do classes”.

    Within this context, participants then worked collaboratively to co-design learning experiments that query place, practice, and positioning, creating innovative learning activities and materials that could be applied in diverse accounting education contexts.

    There are many different ways in which place connects to thoughts about accounting education. Communicating in the team reveal often more connections”.

    Innovative learning activities developed included, for example, immersive experience learning in audit, where students are asked to work in groups to conduct an audit of SDGs and local community, using all their senses in place to conduct individual observations before bringing these together to create an informed group perspective. Alternatively, making use of technology to encourage students to investigate an organisation, working collaboratively with generative AI platforms to formulate key performance indicators and unique ways of measuring organisational performance.

    Hacking Place in Accounting Education provided an exploratory context for accounting academics to explore connections between accounting and place, form deeper relationships with peers and work collaboratively to co-design innovative pedagogical learning materials that begin to place accounting education in context.

    It’s a way to motivate students and improve their critical point of view. I work in a touristic city and most of my students also work at the same time they study. Now I can create an activity using these places and connect to accounting. I want to replicate this hackathon”.

  • EAA 2024 Classroom Session – Using Active Feedback to Develop Students’ Critical Thinking Skills

    Dear EAA members,

    It was a great pleasure to see Suzanne McCallum from University of Glasgow offering the EAA 2024 Classroom session. Some information on the event are below.

    Anastasia

    EAA Classroom Session – Using Active Feedback to Develop Students’ Critical Thinking Skills

    It was an honour to present the classroom session at the EAA’s 46th Annual Congress in Bucharest. I really enjoyed the engagement and interaction with fellow educators, and it’s been great to hear from many of you, and to learn that you plan on trying innovations at your own institution. If you couldn’t attend (or have had a hectic time since the conference and need a reminder) then here’s a refresher of some of the main points.

    General idea:

    • Feedback is a process with students at the heart of it and comparison is the key driving force. Students can compare their work with a range of different sources of information to activate inner feedback processes, helping develop new understandings and performance improvement (as illustrated on the attached slides).
    • When we talk about feedback what we tend to focus on and plan for are the comments students receive from peers or teachers (and therefore the comparisons they make between comments received and their own work). However, this is a narrow view and encourages students to be reliant on others, rather than being independent learners.  So how can we change this? 
    • By thinking carefully and planning for a range of different comparisons (including comparison with information in resources) we can encourage students to move to deeper levels of learning and encourage critical thinking. So, to unlock the power of inner feedback, the decisions we need to make are:
      • Decide on a task for the students to complete. (This can be what you currently ask students to do.)
      • Select resources for comparison (being careful with the selection as different comparators will take you to different places).
      • Formulate clear instructions and decide how to make the output explicit e.g. students update their work or write self-review comments.

    Examples:

    The session focused on computational work and demonstrated a range of comparators that could be used for a depreciation computation scenario. Cycles of comparison gradually led to deeper levels of critical thinking and evaluation. The comparators selected were:

    1. Worked solution – what we traditionally provide. This helps students check the correctness of their solution.
    2. Expert video explanation – helps students focus on the process (rather than simply the correctness of the solution).
    3. Extract from the Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting – allowing students to make a direct comparison between theory and practice (therefore focusing on why they are completing such calculations).

    When I used this with my large first-year class, these comparisons were completed asynchronously pre-class. The comparators noted below were completed in-class and were the activities completed at the classroom session at the EAA.  (The attached slides contain more detail, including instructions/questions to guide the output for each task.)   

    1. A worked solution with the depreciation assumptions changed – prompting students to consider the impact of professional judgment on the figures that appear in financial statements.
    2. A peer discussion on the impact of professional judgment, trying to decide on the most appropriate depreciation policy.
    3. Extract from the ethical code – prompting students to consider the role of a professional accountant and how this might impact on their decision making.

    Try it yourself:

    Participants were then invited to consider designing their own implementation (using the structure outlined in the slides). NOTE: it is not necessary to have an elaborate design, and something simpler than the example I demonstrated can have a big impact. The main thing to do is be creative and bold and try to think about comparators that are not necessarily the same format as the original work and that are not necessarily what you would traditionally use.  My top tips are:

    • When selecting comparators, be bold and creative in your choice. It is also important to be clear on what you are trying to achieve (as different comparators will lead to different outcomes).
    • Provide clear instructions to the students and make the output explicit.
    • Don’t feel you need to comment on everything the students produce. You might want to take a look to get a feel for how they are progressing, but there is no need to provide feedback comments on this work (you are trying to help them be independent learners).
    • Explain to the students why you are doing things in this way, so they understand the thinking and see the benefits of engaging with the tasks.

    Share your thoughts and ideas:

    I hope this has given many of you some food for thought on how to design and implement these ideas.  My co-author (David Nicol) & I would love to hear from you on how you are progressing, so please keep in touch at suzanne.mccallum@glasgow.ac.uk  

  • Twenty Years of Accounting in Europe: A Bibliometric Analysis

    Introduction

    Accounting in Europe (AinE) is one of the two journals of the European Accounting Association (EAA) that publishes high-quality articles offering new insights for research, practice, policy, and regulation. Our scientometric overview synthesizes the scientific and policy-related contributions of AinE, using bibliometric techniques. It reveals the journal’s production and influence, sorting articles into categories, exploring collaboration patterns, unveiling key themes, identifying emerging trends, and outlining future research areas.

     

    Methodological Insights

    This retrospective analysis, covering contributions from 2004 to 2023, analyzed 264 articles. Performance, co-authorship, bibliographic coupling, and co-word analyses are used to shed light on the AinE’s landscape.

     

    Performance insights   

    It identifies five article types: Issues in European Accounting, Regular Articles, Special Issues, Comment Letters, and Opinion Pieces. Special Issues and Issues in European Accounting have the greatest impact. Non-financial reporting and financial instruments dominate the special issues in terms of impact. High Google Scholar indices for these two topics suggest that AinE’s audience extends beyond academia and that the journal content aligns well with its regulatory orientation.

     

    Collaboration insights

    Collaboration is more prevalent among EAA Financial Reporting Standards Committee members. Most highly collaborative institutions are ranked at the top of the US News & World Report Best Global Universities ranking. The UK leads in collaborations, with the UK and France forming the most powerful couple. AinE’s country network highlights its strong European focus and exhibits global research collaborations focused on the European regulatory agenda.

     

    Major themes

    Eleven thematic clusters emerge from the bibliometric analysis, discussing their main themes and evolution: (1) disclosure requirements, (2) transition to IFRS, (3) conceptual framework, (4) non-financial reporting, (5) regulatory bodies, (6) audit quality, (7) endorsement of IFRS, (8) accounting change, (9) IFRS for SMEs, (10) tax reporting, and (11) accounting for carbon emissions.

     

    Emerging trends and future directions

    Research predominantly focuses on sustainability reporting, with attention also given to IFRS 9, fair value hierarchy under IFRS 13, goodwill under IFRS 3, factors influencing audit quality, non-financial reporting, non-profit organizations, and IFRS 16. Sustainability reporting and non-profit organizations are further discussed, articulating future research directions.

     

    Conclusion

    In its 20 years, AinE has evolved into a mature journal, with a significant collaboration network and distinct aims, making substantial contributions to accounting and auditing regulatory debates. This study offers a comprehensive overview of AinE’s evolving landscape, with implications for editorial board, academics, practitioners, and regulators. By highlighting research trends and formulating future avenues, this scientometric overview serves as a catalyst for advancing scholarly exchange in the field.

     

    Article available here:

    Nerantzidis, M., & Vatis, S. E. (2024). Twenty Years of Accounting in Europe: A Bibliometric Analysis. Accounting in Europe, 1–27, DOI:10.1080/17449480.2024.2360934

  • Sixth Ijiri Lecture on Foundations of Accounting at JAA Annual Meetings on August 26, 2024

    Professor (Emeritus) Hiroyuki Itami of Hitotsubashi University has been invited by Professor Usui and the Japan Accounting Association (JAA) to deliver the Sixth Yuji Ijiri Lecture on Foundations of Accounting at the JAA annual conference on August 26, 2024.

     

    The JAA annual conference will be held  at Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan  from Sunday August 25 to Wednesday August 28, 2024.

     

    Lecturer: Hiroyuki Itami, Professor Emeritus, Hitotsubashi University

    Title: Foundations of research I learned from Prof. Ijiri

    Date and Location: Monday, August 26, 2024,  2:50- 4:20 PM  (JST) at Waseda University in Tokyo, Japan

     

    Further information on Professor Yuji Ijiri and the Lecture on Foundations of Accounting is available here:

     

    https://aaahq.org/Ijiri-Lecture

  • Private Firm Accounting Literature Database

    Given the importance of private firms for the global economy, there is a growing interest in research on private firms in general and on private firm accounting in particular. Our openly accessible online app (Privat Firm Accounting Literature Database) allows interested readers to explore their own dip into the literature. The database allows to filter for:

    • Keywords / full-text search
    • Topics (e.g. accounting quality, audit, banks, disclosure, IFRS, …)
    • Country/Regions
    • Data source (e.g. Orbis, Amadeus, or country-specific database)
    • Sample period
    • Publishing date

    The original database included 121 references. We now updated the database with more recent publications. The current sample presented by this app covers 144 original research papers and seven overview papers that have been published between 1986 and 2023.

    The database is an online extension of the paper Private firm accounting: the European reporting environment, data and research perspectives (C. Beuselinck, F. Elfers, J. Gassen, and J. Pierk). We believe the database and the paper to be insightful for a wide range of scholars, but we especially designed this overview to serve as a point of reference for PhD students and academics who are new to the private firm accounting literature.

  • EAA TALENT WORKSHOP 2024

    — EAA JOB MARKET FOR ACCOUNTING ACADEMICS

    (Madrid. November 8-9, 2024)

    Building Bridges between Young Talent and Academic Institutions

    https://eaa-jobmarket.ie.edu/

    Institutions of higher learning witness increasing mobility of PhD students and faculty. Combining the strengths of the web and face-to-face initiatives, the Management Committee of the EAA agreed to launch the ninth edition of its job market, a Talent Workshop, for accounting academics.

    Supporting institutions

    The Talent Workshop held editions in 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021, 2022 and 2023. In these editions, the following academic institutions participated as recruiters: Aalborg University Business School, Aalto University School of Business, Aarhus University, Adam Smith Business School – University of Glasgow, BI– Norwegian Business School, Bocconi University, Cass Business School – City University London, Católica Lisbon School of Business and Economics, China Europe International Business School, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Concordia University, Copenhagen Business School, CUNEF, EDHEC, Erasmus University, ESADE, ESCP Business School, ESSEC Business School, Frankfurt School of Finance & Management, Fucape Business School – FBS, Brazil,  Ghent University, HEC Lausanne – University of Lausanne,  HEC Paris, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, IE Business School / IE University, IESE Business School, IESEG School of Management, ISEG – Lisbon School of Economics & Management, INSEAD, IULM, KU Leuven, Lancaster University, London School of Economics and Political Science, Ludwig- Maximilians Universitat, LUISS University, Monash University, National Research University Higher School of Economics, National University of Singapore, Neoma Business School, Nord University, Norwegian School of Economics, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Queen Mary University, Radboud University, Rennes School of Business, RSM Erasmus University, SKEMA Business School, SolBridge International School of Business,  Stockholm School of Economics, TBS Business School, The American University in Cairo, The University of Queensland Business School, The University of Sydney, Tilburg University, Toulouse Business School, Trinity College Dublin, UEA,  Umeå University, University of Alberta, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Universidad de Navarra, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Université Catholique de Louvain (Louvain School of Management), Université Toulouse 1 Capitole, University of Amsterdam, University of Antwerp, University of Bern, University of Bolzano, University of Bristol, University of Cambridge, University of Cyprus, University of East Anglia, University of Exeter Business School, University of Glasgow, University of Groningen, University of Innsbruck, University of Manchester, University of Mannheim, University of Melbourne, University of North Texas, University of Notre Dame, University of Oxford, University of Padova, University of Southern Denmark, University of Strathclyde, University of Sussex, University of Waterloo, Vienna University of Economics and Business,  University of Washington, UNL – NovaSBE, UNSW Sydney, Vrije Unversiteit Amsterdam, Warwick Business School and WHU – Otto Beisheim School of Management.

     

    Venue

    The event will be held in Madrid during November 8-9, 2024, and its hosting institution is IE University. Address: IE Tower.  Paseo de la Castellana 259E, Madrid, Spain.  During the event, institutions and candidates will have the opportunity to meet both through public presentations of candidates’ job market papers and private interviews.

    Application –PhD students and faculty members.

    PhD students and faculty members interested in participating in the job market as candidates are asked to submit the following materials before October 1, 2024:

    -their job market paper

    -resume

    -brief research statement

     

    at the following email address: eaa-jobmarket@ie.edu. Participation in the Talent Workshop is free for accepted candidates, and this will cover their participation in the scientific program, availability to hold interviews with recruiters, coffee breaks and lunches. Upon acceptance to the Talent Workshop, candidates will be asked to complete the registration form that will be available on the website.

    Accepted candidates will get access to vacancies posted by recruiting institutions.

    Registration –Recruiting institutions.

    Recruiting institutions are asked to complete the registration form that is available on  https://secure.ie.edu/EAAJobMarket/ . The institutional fee for recruiters is 450 euros; it covers for the participation of one member of the recruiting institution as well as the use of a meeting place to interview candidates. The registration fee for further members of the same institution, who share the same meeting place, is 350 euros. Recruiting institutions’ deadline:  October 21, 2024. Registration fee after the deadline is 500 euros, subject to availability.

    Recruiting institutions may post their vacancies on the EAA Talent Workshop’s website.

    Video

    This link will take you to a video that illustrates the climate of the EAA Talent Workshop:

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yRj-rjpMrkk&feature=youtu.be

  • Diversity in Accounting: Trends, Gaps, and Future Directions

    Introduction

    In accounting, diversity has emerged as a key area of study, reflecting broader societal shifts towards inclusivity and equity. Our recent systematic literature review sheds light on the evolving landscape of diversity within the accounting literature, offering insights into prevailing trends, research gaps, and potential future directions.

    Trends in Diversity Research

    The review, spanning publications from 1979 to 2021, analyzed 428 studies, revealing a notable surge in diversity-focused research, particularly from 2017 to 2021, indicating a 171% increase compared to the preceding period of 2012 to 2016.

    Gender, ethnicity, and race emerged as the most researched, with gender studies comprising the majority (62.4%) of the sample. Conversely, studies on disabilities and sexual orientation were noticeably scarce, comprising only 1.9% and 0.7% of the sample, respectively.

    Geographical and Methodological Insights

    Analysis of author demographics showcased a concentration of research in Western Anglo-Saxon countries, while quantitative methodologies slightly outnumbered qualitative approaches.

    While no specific journal exhibited publishing dominance, three interdisciplinary accounting journals featured prominently:

    • Critical Perspectives on Accounting
    • Accounting Auditing and Accountability Journal, and Accounting
    • Organizations, and Society

    Major Themes and Implications

    Four overarching themes emerged from the reviewed literature:

    1. Diversity in the Accounting Profession
    2. Diversity in Corporate Governance
    3. Diversity in Audit and Accounting Processes
    4. Influence of Organizational Information Reporting on Diversity

    These studies underscored the positive correlation between organizational diversity and performance, yet also highlighted persistent power imbalances. Moreover, a critical question arose regarding whether the increasing attention to diversity aligns with genuine efforts to promote equity and social justice.

    Future Directions and Implications

    The review indicated four key implications for future research:

    1. Expanding Topics and Strategic Consideration: While diversity research is on the rise, there is a call to broaden the scope of analysis and adopt a more comprehensive approach towards advancing social justice and equity.
    2. Intersectionality: Recognizing the complexity of various dimensions of diversity, future studies must embrace intersectionality to provide a better understanding of diversity.
    3. 3. Impact of Reporting on Diversity Practices: Further exploration into how organizational reporting on diversity influences actual diversity practices.
    4. Diverse Voices: Encouraging greater diversity in the discourse surrounding accounting and diversity is imperative, ensuring that multiple perspectives are represented and accounted for in the literature.

    Conclusion

    In conclusion, the systematic literature review offers a comprehensive overview of diversity within the accounting literature, highlighting both progress and persisting gaps. By highlighting current trends and articulating future research directions, this study serves as a catalyst for advancing inclusivity, equity, and social justice within accounting. As research continues to grapple with the complexity of diversity, fostering more diverse and inclusive scholarly discourses is paramount in driving meaningful change within the field of accounting.

    Article available here:

    Ghio, A., Occhipinti, Z., & Verona, R. (2024) The Consideration of Diversity in the Accounting Literature: A Systematic Literature Review, European Accounting Review, DOI: 10.1080/09638180.2024.2330089

     

  • Leveraging Digital Expertise: A New Frontier in Auditor Value Creation

    In an era where digital transformation is remaking industries, auditors find themselves swept up in the winds of change. Our recent study published in the European Accounting Review, titled “The Effect of Audit Partner Digitalization Expertise on Audit Fees” (Maghakyan, Jarva, Niemi, & Sihvonen), offers insights into the impact of digital expertise on the evolving audit landscape. It highlights a pivotal shift: audit partners with robust digital skills command a premium of up to eight percent in the audit market, underscoring the value of digital acumen in traditional practices.

    Digitalization has moved beyond mere buzzwords to become a fundamental competency in various sectors, with auditing being no exception. As businesses evolve their operations to digital platforms, auditors too must adapt, not only to maintain relevance but to enhance the quality and efficiency of their services. Audit partners with a deep understanding of digital business models and technologies bring a distinct advantage to their clients and firms. They navigate complex digital ecosystems with ease, ensuring that audits are more thorough, efficient, and aligned with modern business practices.

    The study analyzed data from U.S. listed companies over six years from 2016 to 2021, revealing a significant fee premium for audit partners specializing in digitalization. This premium was found to be independent of industry specialization, highlighting the unique value of digital expertise in the auditing field. The study’s findings are a clarion call for audit professionals: in an increasingly digital world, proficiency in digital tools and platforms is not just an asset; it’s a necessity.

    This shift has profound implications. For individual auditors, investing in digital skills is no longer optional but a career imperative. Audit firms must recalibrate their training and development strategies, embedding digital literacy at the core of their professional development agendas. Audit firms that proactively enhance their team’s digital capabilities will not only stay competitive but will also set new standards in audit quality and efficiency. This approach is not just about keeping pace with technological advancements; it’s also about redefining the value proposition of auditing in a digital age.

    The intersection of auditing and digitalization presents both challenges and opportunities. For forward-thinking audit professionals and firms, the message is clear: Embrace digitalization not just as a functional skill but as a strategic asset. In doing so, they will not only enhance their market value but also contribute to the evolution of the auditing profession in the digital era.

  • Two calls for contributors to the FRSC’s comment letters

    Within the EAA, the Financial Reporting Standards Committee (FRSC) views itself as the academic sparring partner to the financial reporting standard setters including the IASB and EFRAG. To this end, the FRSC regularly writes comment letters and organizes EAA Reporting Standards Workshops together with the IASB and EFRAG. Within the frame of this activity, the Financial Reporting Standards Committee (FRSC) invites expressions of interest in contribution to one of the two following comment letter projects. The first comment letter project is a response to the IASB’s PIR IFRS 16 “Leases”. The IASB decided in December 2023 to begin the PIR of IFRS 16 in the second quarter of 2024. The second comment letter project will consider responses to IASB’s requests for information in the frame of the IASB’s research project “Statement of Cash Flows and Related Matters” which the IASB has added to its Research Project Pipeline following feedback received on its third Agenda Consultation.

    Contributors are invited to join the FRSC’s comment letters as co-authors. If you would like to take part in one of these comment letter projects as co-author, please send us your CV indicating that you are knowledgeable on the topic evidenced by research projects conducted in the area or academic publications or being familiar with standard-setting processes. Please also include a short motivation explaining why you want to join the team. Expressions of interest can be sent to baha.diyarov@eiasm.be by the 22 March 2024.

  • SRC is inviting expressions of interest in contribution to the comment letters as a response to the EFRAG’s EDs on LSME and VSME

    Within the EAA, the Stakeholder Reporting Committee (SRC) strives to foster collaboration with standard setters and policymakers in the field of sustainability reporting. To this end, the SRC has been organizing EAA webinars, the so call “In conversations with…”, as well as symposiums at the EAA conferences, among other activities, such as writing comment letters. Within the frame of this activity, and for the first time, the SRC is inviting expressions of interest in contribution to the comment letters as a response to the EFRAG’s EDs on LSME and VSME.

    Contributors are invited to join the SRC’s comment letters as co-authors. If you would like to take part in one of these comment letter projects as co-author, please send us your CV indicating that you are knowledgeable on the topic evidenced by research projects conducted in the area or academic publications and being familiar with standard-setting processes, in particular with the development of the CSRD and the final ESRSs. Please also include a short motivation explaining why you want to join the team.

    As you probably know in this case the deadline for the comment letters is the 21st of May, so there is no much time for completing the process, since the SRC needs also some time to discuss and agree with the final letters to be sent to EFRAG. Thus, in principle we can think about having the draft letters by the 3h of May at the latest. Expressions of interest can be sent to baha.diyarov@eiasm.be by the 8th of March 2024.

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